Anemia and Your Young Child: Guidelines for Parents: Adapted from Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5
What is anemia?
Anemia is a condition that occurs when there are not enough red blood cells or hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the other cells in the body. The body’s cells need oxygen to survive. Your child may become anemic for any of the following reasons:
Her body does not produce enough red blood cells.
Her body destroys or loses (through bleeding) too many red blood cells.
There is not enough hemoglobin in her red blood cells.
Hemoglobinis a special pigment that makes it possible for the red blood cells to carry oxygen to all the cells of the body, and to carry waste material (carbon dioxide) away.
Types of anemia
A lack of other nutrients in the diet can also cause anemia. Too little folic acid can lead to anemia, though this is very rare. It is most often seen in children fed on goat’s milk, which contains very little folic acid. Rarely, too little vitamin B12, vitamin E, or copper can also cause anemia.
Signs and symptoms of anemia
Anemia causes the following signs and symptoms:
Pale, gray, or “ashy” skin (also, the lining of the eyelids and the nail beds may look less pink than normal)
Children with severe anemia may have the following additional signs and symptoms:
Shortness of breath
Rapid heart rate
Swollen hands and feet
Also, a newborn with hemolytic anemia may become jaundiced (turn yellow), although many newborns are mildly jaundiced and do not become anemic.
Children who lack iron in their diets may also eat strange things such as ice, dirt, clay, and cornstarch. This behavior is called “pica.” It is not harmful unless your child eats something toxic, such as lead paint chips. Usually the pica stops after the anemia is treated and as the child grows older.
If your child shows any of these symptoms or signs, see your pediatrician. A simple blood count can diagnose anemia in most cases.
Treatment for anemia
Since there are so many different types of anemia, it is very important to identify the cause before beginning any treatment. Do not try to treat your child with vitamins, iron, or other nutrients or over-the-counter medications unless your pediatrician recommends it. This is important because such treatment may mask the real cause of the problem. This could delay a proper diagnosis.
If the anemia is due to a lack of iron, your child will be given an iron-containing medication. This comes in a drop form for infants, and liquid or tablet forms for older children. Your pediatrician will determine how long your child should take the iron medication by checking her blood regularly. Do not stop giving the medication until your pediatrician tells you it is no longer needed.
Iron medications are extremely poisonous if too much is taken. Iron is one of the most common causes of poisoning in children under 5 years of age. Keep this and all medication out of the reach of small children.
Following are a few tips concerning iron medication:
Do not give iron with milk. Milk blocks the absorption of iron.
Vitamin C increases iron absorption. You might want to follow the dose of iron with a glass of orange juice.
Liquid iron can turn the teeth a grayish-black color. Have your child swallow it quickly and then rinse her mouth with water. You also may want to brush your child’s teeth after every dose of iron. Tooth-staining by iron looks bad, but it is not permanent.
Iron can cause the stools to become a dark black color. Do not be worried by this change.
Iron-deficiency anemia and other nutritional anemias can be prevented easily. Make sure your child is eating a well-balanced diet by following these suggestions:
Do not give your baby cow’s milk until he is over 12 months old.
If your child is breast-fed, give him foods with added iron, such as cereal, when you begin feeding him solid foods. Before then, he will get enough iron from the breast milk. However, feeding him solid foods with too little iron will decrease the amount of iron he gets from the milk.
If you formula-feed your baby, give him formula with added iron.
Make sure your older child eats a well-balanced diet with foods that contain iron. Many grains and cereals have added iron (check labels to be sure). Other good sources of iron include egg yolks, red meat, potatoes, tomatoes, molasses, and raisins. Also, to increase the iron in your family’s diet, use the fruit pulp in juices, and cook potatoes with the skins on.
With proper treatment, your child’s anemia should improve quickly. Be sure to contact your pediatrician if you think your child might be anemic.
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